Sunday, May 24, 2020

Capitalism Is A Way Of Organizing An Economy - 875 Words

In the Michael Moore documentary Capitalism a Love Story examples what capitalism is and how it hurt so many citizens. Capitalism is a way of organizing an economy so that the things that are used to make and transport products are owned by individual people and companies rather than by the government. The documentary teaches viewers the impact that big corporations have on americans. At the beginning of the film Moore is showing middle class people get there houses taken from them because of capitalism. Henslin explains in chapter eleven that in the United states the capitalism that we have is state or welfare capitalism (Henslin, 2015). There is know such thing as a whole country being capitalists. Therefore, state capitalism means â€Å"private citizens own the means of production and pursue profits, but they do so within a vast system of laws designed to patent the welfare of the population, and not incidentally ensures that the government can collect taxes.† Mooreà ¢â‚¬â„¢s documentary explains why capitalism is hurting our country in so many different ways. But big CEOs and business owners do not want to hear what the middle class people have to say because it is the big companies like that, that are taking everyones money and work. Not only are there houses getting taken away but the way the police are treating them are so rude and disrespectful. The police officer told one on the guys he needed to get out of the house he was supposed to be out by now but the guy wasShow MoreRelatedCapitalism for The Better, Socialism for The Worse Failing or profitable government? There are800 Words   |  4 PagesCapitalism for The Better, Socialism for The Worse Failing or profitable government? There are various types of economies in the the world, of the various types they can be narrowed down to the two most common which are capitalist and socialist economies. Capitalism is â€Å"a way of organizing an economy so that the things that are used to make and transport products are owned by individual people and companies rather than by the government† (Merriam Webster). Socialism is â€Å"a way of organizing a societyRead MoreCold War: Capatalism v. Communism873 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"Capitalism v. Communism† During the Cold War, Europe was split between communist countries and non-communist countries. The strife was caused by the differences in the underlying values in capitalism and communism. During this time, the United States and the Soviet Union also had opposing ideologies. Despite the differing ideologies of capitalism and communism, both have affected the political, cultural, and economic development of Third World countries. Capitalism is â€Å"a way of organizing anRead MoreThe Corporate American Model Of Capitalism1316 Words   |  6 PagesCapitalism is good. In reading the articles, it seems scholars are either pro or anti-capitalism. The corporate American model of capitalism is built upon free enterprise and encourages competition. It’s also called the Liberal/Social Democratic model. Our economy, supposedly, encourages and rewards competition and equality. Yet the lack of competition and equality in our economy are issues scholars take aim at the most. George (2013) wrote in his editorial, â€Å"In the United States, income inequalityRead MoreAnarchism and Elitism in the United States780 Words   |  3 PagesDemocrat or Republican. The Democrats believe the Republicans have it all wrong because they are avoiding the opportunities for government to take care of the people. The Republicans think the Democrats have it all wrong because they are destroying the economy and power of America by redistributing the wealth to those who have not legitimately earned it. While we have been busy feuding between the two parties we have not even noticed the transition our country has taken. Today we are so far from the ConstitutionRead MoreAnalysis of Joseph A. Schumpeter’s1505 Words   |  7 Pagesis that capitalism is an evolutionary process. He describes how it is an always moving concept and it â€Å"not only is but never can be stationary.† Schumpeter goes on to state that the evolutionary process of capitalism is not due to the fact that the â€Å"economic life goes on in a social and natural environment,† meaning that the main reason for capitalism’s constant evolution is not because of the things like wars and revolutions that pick up or bring now the economy. The reason capitalism is an evolutionaryRead MoreThe Beginning Of International Liberalism1035 Words   |  5 Pagesand the inter-war period economic crisis. The Russian Revolution as an attempt to overthought capitalism, the failed socialist revolutions in Europe and finally the Market crash of 1929 and the impact of the US Great Depression on World Markets. 1939-1973: WWII and the revival of US economy - US the sole healthy economy not influenced by the way yet making profits from the war. Post-WWII world economy guided by US economic principles inscribed in the Breton Wood Agreement - gold standard is peggedRead MoreKarl Marx And Max Weber1174 Words   |  5 PagesThe study of sociology has always focused on examining the many factors that compose society and the myriad of ways in which it functions. Karl Marx along with Émile Durkheim and Max Weber were the pioneers that are credited as being the founders of classical sociology. They were the first ones to thoroughly examine the complexities of society and create theories for them. The theoretical frameworks and research methodologies created by these sociologists were products of the enlightenment and areRead MoreAdam Smith And Karl Marx1674 Words   |  7 Pagesunderstanding of liberalism, one being its proponent Adam Smith and the other being its most significant critic, Karl Marx. Both thinkers are profoundly important in locating and investigating the roots of neoliberalism as well as exploring alternative s ways to challenge neoliberal economics in the face of its post-cold war expansion as the inevitable and only alternative to redistribution and economic justice. This essay traces the emerging ideas of classical liberalism as articulated by Smith and theirRead MoreEmergence of Market Society1713 Words   |  7 Pagesmarket being one. Furthermore into the market, Polanyis book â€Å"The great Transformation† gives insight on how much society actually allows the market to dominate. To Polanyi a market society is seen as social relations embedded in the economy instead of the economy being embedded in social relations. Examining both of these books gives a great understanding on how life was without the market and how it came to be. Taking note of Rineharts work as well on how the workplace has drastically been changedRead MoreThomas Heilbroner s Twenty First Century Capitalism3106 Words   |  13 Pagesthat created our present condition, capitalism. In order to understand c apitalism, we must not only try to understand what capitalism really is, but realize that it is not solely composed of what is commonly connected with the term, economics. Rather, it is composed of varying social and political factors that make capitalism what it truly is. This view and analysis of capitalism is what Robert Heilbroner puts forth in his 1992 book, Twenty-First Century Capitalism, where he introduces the notion of

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Christian Counseling An Overview - 1470 Words

Biblical Counseling is making a strong impact in todays churches and community. Counseling is seen as one of the most productive ways of helping a person reach the inner side of themselves to help solve any problems that might be arising. Furthermore, when it comes to being a counselor, not something that should be taken for granted. We are all born of sin, but we have been saved through the grace of Jesus Christ. Not everyone bless to be a counselor, but Dr. Crabbs biblical teaching in Christian counseling will lay out the foundational requirement to enable the ones called by God to be an effective counselor. The book of Philippians 1:6 states, being confident of this, that he who began a good work in carry it on to completion until†¦show more content†¦Each one has its own focus and neither has the plan of God the mist of their analysis. The concept of CBT is cognitive, behavior responses, which do not have biblical compliments and that, will only, lead to a temporal satis faction, leading to a false sense of security RCCT is known as a temperament-actualization concept in which the client will think that they will have the instinctive drive to solve their problem to the best of their abilities, thinking that they can rely on their own potentials to get them through their pain and suffering. recognized as nonexistence in the biblical world as a matter of fact it is seen as a type of false doctrine that believes that the only way it can be seen is as a way of psychological Basic Strategy The basic strategy for dealing and understanding the clients problem is outlined in a seven stage counseling process that will give the client another way of looking at the problem, and the stages are identified as: Identify problem feelings, identify problem behavior, identify thinking, clarify biblical thinking, secure commitment, plan and carry out biblical behavior and identify Spirit-controlled feelings (Crabb, 1977 p In order for the step process to work and be effective, the client must know that they must have a renewing of their mind on how their process is and they must be willing to open up and carryout the biblical principles that will all them to trust God and allow theShow MoreRelatedUse of Prayer and Scripture in Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Essay638 Words   |  3 Pagesappropriately, how to approach using biblical/ Christian values in therapy. The journal also talks about an historical overview of behavioral therapy, throughout the years. The commentary discusses the two component of mindfulness, in which the first component engages self-guidance concentration and the second component engages implementing a meticulous direction that is distinguish by interest. He discusses the eight main features of the Christian approach to cognitive-behavior therapy. It alsoRead MoreThe Counsel Of Heaven On Earth Essay1596 Words   |  7 Pageswritten by Ian F. Jones on the topic of Christian counsel ing. Jones makes sure to let his readers know that this book is not meant to be a guide for Christian counseling; he in no way means to advocate a particular methodology, system, or school of thought. Instead, Jones is â€Å"[trying] to identify and explain the essential features of Biblical Christian counseling. No attempt has been made to engage in formal theory building or to develop systematically any counseling strategies or techniques. [His] intentionRead MoreInternet Forum and Discussion Board Forums1224 Words   |  5 Pagesof a Christian worldview for counseling and marriage and family practice. Ethical issues relevant to the use of spiritual and religious interventions with individuals, couples, families are considered, along with current research related to spirituality and counseling. Rationale Integration of psychology, theology, and spirituality provides students an overview of integration models as a theoretical and practical foundation for faith-based counseling. In order to practice Christian counselingRead MoreIntegrative Approaches Of Psychology And Christianity1495 Words   |  6 Pagesthe field of psychology and insights from Christian faith to develop a working definition of integration. Integration begins with basic Christian assumptions and faithful worship of God (Entwistle, 2010). Integration includes developing a worldview based on Christianity and an understanding of historical and philosophical foundations of psychology by utilizing different methods and source materials (Entwistle, 2010). Together both psychology and Christian theology can provide a more complete andRead MoreAn Overview of Alternative Methods of Incarceration700 Words   |  3 PagesAn Overview of Alternative Methods of Incarceration Leaders at the Federal, State, and Local levels are constantly seeking ingenious methods to reduce the costs of criminal justice and corrections. It is agreed that violent offenders should be in maximum security facilities, however establishing alternatives to prison for non-violent offenders have become a necessity (e.g. DMI, Project HOPE, The 24/7 sobriety project). Due to the overcrowding and budget issues, methods have been devised to increaseRead MoreNarrative Therapy1612 Words   |  7 PagesNarrative therapy is a family counseling approach that continues to evolve and gain popularity in the field of therapy (Chang Nylund, 2013). Given the continued strides of narrative therapy this is a family counseling approach worthy of research. This paper will detail the beginnings of narrative therapy and those responsible for its development. Although White and Epston are the leading figures of narrative therapy many individuals with varying backgrounds and beliefs influenced their thinkingRead MoreMy Integrative Counseling Theory Proposal Essay1550 Words   |  7 Pages â€Å"My Integrative Counseling Theory Proposal† Monica Blount Point University Abstract This paper will examine the theories of two prominent Psychologist; Carl Roger and Aaron Beck. Cognitive Behavior Therapy was developed by Aaron Beck who believed that individuals ‘were a by product of their environment. Person Center Therapy understand that people can use their strengths and resources to solve their own problems. This paper will describe how these two models can be used to integrate therapeuticRead MoreIn the Redeemers Hands1648 Words   |  7 PagesSummary of Instruments in the Redeemer’s Hands Paul D. Tripp authored a work that promotes the world of biblical counseling that is not bound to a professional clinical model but incorporates the daily ministry lifestyle founded on the Scriptures. Tripp emphasizes the gospel of Jesus Christ as the hope for those who have lost hope. The moment when sin entered the world through Adam’s fall brought forth guilt, fear, and shame became the standard. In a few pages, Tripp wrote the story of the Fall andRead MoreThe Anxiety Cure941 Words   |  4 PagesSeminary Lynchburg, VA __________________ In Partial Fulfillment Of the requirements for the course PACO 507 Theology and Spirituality in Counseling ________________________ By December 12, 2010 The Anxiety Cure By Dr. Archibald D. Hart Concise Summary: Dr. Archibald Hart brings gives his contribution to the counseling world by giving us the Anxiety Cure. The essence of the book is found in the beginning of the book. Anxiety is now the number one emotional problemRead MorePersuasive Speech : Salvation Army794 Words   |  4 Pagesaudience what the Salvation Army does exactly and who they benefit Thesis: The Salvation Army is a Christian church and an international charitable organization that helps millions by helping the poor and providing disaster relief as well as humanitarian aid to developing countries. Intro: Attention getter: The Salvation Army, an international movement, is an evangelical part of the universal Christian Church. Its message is based on the Bible. Its ministry is motivated by the love of God. Its mission

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Case Nestle Free Essays

string(45) " and Latin America for growth possibilities\." NESTLE CASE STUDY Nestle is one of the oldest of all multinational businesses. The company was founded in Switzerland in 1866 by Heinrich Nestle, who established Nestle to distribute â€Å"milk food,† a type of infant food he had invented that was made from powdered milk, baked food, and sugar. From its very early days, the company looked to other countries for growth opportunities, establishing its first foreign offices in London in 1868. We will write a custom essay sample on Case Nestle or any similar topic only for you Order Now In 1905, the company merged with the Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk, thereby broadening the company’s product line to include both condensed milk and infant formulas. Forced by Switzerland’s small size to look outside’ its borders for growth opportunities, Nestle established condensed milk and infant food processing plants in the United States and Britain in the late 19th century and in Australia, South America, Africa, and Asia in the first three decades of the 20th century. In 1929, Nestle moved into the chocolate business when it acquired a Swiss chocolate maker. This was followed in 1938 by the development of Nestle’s most revolutionary product, Nescafe, the world’s first soluble coffee drink. After World War 11, Nestle continued to expand into other areas of the food business, primarily through a series of acquisitions that included Maggi (1947), Cross Blackwell (1960), Findus (1962), Libby’s (1970), Stouffer’s (1973), Carnation (1985), Rowntree (1988), and Perrier (1992). By the late 1990s, Nestle had 500 factories in 76 countries and sold its products in a staggering 193 nations-almost every country in the world. In 1998, the company generated sales of close to SWF 72 billion ($51 billion), only 1 percent of which occurred in its home country. Similarly, only 3 percent of its- 210,000 employees were located in Switzerland. Nestle was the world’s biggest maker of infant formula, powdered milk, chocolates, instant coffee, soups, and mineral waters. It was number two in ice cream, breakfast cereals, and pet food. Roughly 38 percent of its food sales were made in Europe, 32 percent in the Americas, and 20 percent in Africa and Asia. Management Structure Nestle is a decentralized organization. Responsibility for operating decisions is pushed down to local units, which typically enjoy a high degree f autonomy with regard to decisions involving pricing, distribution, marketing, human resources, and so on. At the same time, the company is organized into seven worldwide strategic business units (SBUs) that have responsibility for high-level strategic decisions and business development. For example, a strategic business unit focuses on coffee and beverages. Another one focuses on confectionery and ice cream. These SBUs engage in overall strategy development, including acquisitions and market entry strategy. In recent years, two-thirds of Nestle’s growth has come from acquisitions, so this is a critical function. Running in parallel to this structure is a regional organization that divides the world into five major geographical zones, such as Europe, North America and Asia. The regional organizations assist in the overall strategy development process and are responsible for developing regional strategies (an example would be Nestle’s strategy in the Middle East, which was discussed earlier). Neither the SBU nor regional managers, however, get involved in local operating or strategic decisions on anything other than an exceptional basis. Although Nestle makes intensive use of local managers to knit its diverse worldwide operations together, the company relies on its â€Å"expatriate army. †Ã‚   This consists of about 700 managers who spend the bulk of their careers on foreign assignments, moving from one country to the next. Selected primarily on the basis of their ability, drive and willingness to live a quasi-nomadic lifestyle, these individuals often work in half-a-dozen natiosn during their careers. Nestle also uses management development programs as a strategic tool for creating an  esprit de corps  among managers. At Rive-Reine, the company’s international training center in Switzerland, the company brings together, managers from around the world, at different stages in their careers, for specially targetted development programs of two to three weeks’ duration. The objective of these programs is to give the managers a better understanding of Nestle’s culture and strategy, and to give them access to the company’s top management. The research and development operation has a special place within Nestle, which is not surprising for a company that was established to commercialize innovative foodstuffs. The RD function comprises 18 different groups that operate in 11 countries throughout the world. Nestle spends approximately 1 percent of its annual sales revenue on RD and has 3,100 employees dedicated to the function. Around 70 percent of the RD budget is spent on development initiatives. These initiatives focus on developing products and processes that fulfill market needs, as identified by the SBUs, in concert with regional and local managers. For example, Nestle instant noodle products were originally developed by the RD group in response to the perceived needs of local operating companies through the Asian region. The company also has longer-term development projects that focus on developing new technological platforms, such as non-animal protein sources or agricultural biotechnology products. A Growth Strategy for the 21st  Century Despite its undisputed success, Nestle realized by the early 1990s, that it faced significant challenges in maintaining its growth rate. The large Western European and North American markets were mature. In several countries, population growth had stagnated and in some, there had been a small decline in food consumption. The retail environment in many Western nations had become increasingly challenging and the balance of power was shifting away from the large-scale manufacturers of branded foods and beverages, and toward nationwide supermarket and discount chains. Increasingly, retailers found themselves in the unfamiliar position of playing off against each other – manufacturers of branded foods, thus bargaining down prices. Particularly in Europe, this trend was enhanced by the successful introduction of private-label brands by several of Europe’s leading supermarket chains. The results included increased price competition in several key segments of the food and beverage market, such as cereals, coffee and soft drinks. At Nestle, one response has been to look toward emerging markets in Eastern Europe, Asia and Latin America for growth possibilities. You read "Case Nestle" in category "Essay examples" The logic is simple and obvious – a combination of economic and population growth, when coupled with the widespread adoption of market-oriented economic policies by the governments of many developing nations, makes for attractive business opportunities. Many of these countries are still relatively poor, but their economies are growing rapidly. For example, if current economic growth forecasts occur, by 2010, there will be 700 million people in China and India that have income levels approaching those of Spain in the mid-1990s. As income levels rise, it is increasingly likely that consumers in these nations will start to substitute branded food products for basic foodstuffs, creating a large market opportunity for companies such as Nestle. In general, the company’s strategy had been to enter emerging markets early – before competitors – and build a substantial position by selling basic food items that appeal to the local population base, such as infant formula, condensed milk, noodles and tofu. By narrowing its initial market focus to just a handful of strategic brands, Nestle claims it can simplify life, reduce risk, and concentrate its marketing resources and managerial effort on a limited number of key niches. The goal is to build a commanding market position in each of these niches. By pursuing such a strategy, Nestle has taken as much as 85 percent of the market for instant coffee in Mexico, 66 percent of the market for powdered milk in the Philippines, and 70 percent of the markets for soups in Chile. As income levels rise, the company progressively moves out from these niches, introducing more upscale items, such as mineral water, chocolate, cookies, and prepared foodstuffs. Although the company is known worldwide for several key brands, such as Nescafe, it uses local brands in many markets. The company owns 8,500 brands, but only 750 of them are registered in more than one country, and only 80 are registered in more than 10 countries. While the company will use the same â€Å"global brands† in multiple developed markets, in the developing world it focuses on trying to optimize ingredients and processing technology to local conditions and then using a brand name that resonates locally. Customization rather than globalization is the key to the company’s strategy in emerging markets. Executing the Strategy Successful execution of the strategy for developing markets requires a degree of flexibility, an ability to adapt in often unforeseen ways to local conditions, and a long-term perspective that puts building a sustainable business before short-term profitability. In Nigeria, for example, a crumbling road system, aging trucks, and the danger of violence forced the company to re-think its traditional distribution methods. Instead of operating a central warehouse, as is its preference in most nations, the country. For safety reasons, trucks carrying Nestle goods are allowed to travel only during the day and frequently under-armed guard. Marketing also poses challenges in Nigeria. With little opportunity for typical Western-style advertising on television of billboards, the company hired local singers to go to towns and villages offering a mix of entertainment and product demonstrations. China provides another interesting example of local adaptation and long-term focus. After 13 years of talks, Nestle was formally invited into China in 1987, by the Government of Heilongjiang province. Nestle opened a plant to produce powdered milk and infant formula there in 1990, but quickly realized that the local rail and road infrastructure was inadequate and inhibited the collection of milk and delivery of finished products. Rather than make do with the local infrastructure, Nestle embarked on an ambitious plan to establish its own distribution network, known as milk roads, between 27 villages in the region and factory collection points, called chilling centres. Farmers brought their milk – often on bicycles or carts – to the centres where it was weighed and analysed. Unlike the government, Nestle paid the farmers promptly. Suddenly the farmers had an incentive to produce milk and many bought a second cow, increasing the cow population in the district by 3,000 to 9,000 in 18 months. Area managers then organized a delivery system that used dedicated vans to deliver the milk to Nestle’s factory. Although at first glance this might seem to be a very costly solution, Nestle calculated that the long-term benefits would be substantial. Nestle’s strategy is similar to that undertaken by many European and American companies during the first waves of industrialization in those countries. Companies often had to invest in infrastructure that we now take for granted to get production off the ground. Once the infrastructure was in place, in China, Nestle’s production took off. In 1990, 316 tons of powdered milk and infant formula were produced. By 1994, output exceeded 10,000 tons and the company decided to triple capacity. Based on this experience, Nestle decided to build another two powdered milk factories in China and was aiming to generate sales of $700 million by 2000. Nestle is pursuing a similar long-term bet in the Middle East, an area in which most multinational food companies have little presence. Collectively, the Middle East accounts for only about 2 percent of Nestle’s worldwide sales and the individual markets are very small. However, Nestle’s long-term strategy is based on the assumption that regional conflicts will subside and intra-regional trade ill expand as trade barriers between countries in the region come down. Once that happens, Nestle’s factories in the Middle East should be able to sell throughout the region, thereby realizing scale economies. In anticipation of this development, Nestle has established a network of factories in five countries, in the hope that each will, someday, supply the entire region with different products. The company, currently makes ice-cream in Dubai, soups and cereals in Saudi Arabia, yogurt and bouillon in Egypt, chocolate in Turkey, and ketchup and instant noodles in Syria. For the present, Nestle can survive in these markets by using local materials and focusing on local demand. The Syrian factory, for example, relies on products that use tomatoes, a major local agricultural product. Syria also produces wheat, which is the main ingredient in instant noodles. Even if trade barriers don’t come down soon, Nestle has indicated it will remain committed to the region. By using local inputs and focussing on local consumer needs, it has earned a good rate of return in the region, even though the individual markets are small. Despite its successes in places such as China and parts of the Middle East, not all of Nestle’s moves have worked out so well. Like several other Western companies, Nestle has had its problems in Japan, where a failure to adapt its coffee brand to local conditions meant the loss of a significant market opportunity to another Western company, Coca Cola. For years, Nestle’s instant coffee brand was the dominant coffee product in Japan. In the 1960s, cold canned coffee (which can be purchased from soda vending machines) started to gain a following in Japan. Nestle dismissed the product as just a coffee-flavoured drink rather than the real thing and declined to enter the market. Nestle’s local partner at the time, Kirin Beer, was so incensed at Nestle’s refusal to enter the canned coffee market that it broke off its relationship with the company. In contrast, Coca Cola entered the market with Georgia, a product developed specifically for this segment of the Japanese market. By leveraging its existing distribution channel, Coca Cola captured a 40 percent share of the $4 billion a year, market for canned coffee in Japan. Nestle, which failed to enter the market until the 1980s, has only a 4 percent share. While Nestle has built businesses from the ground up, in many emerging markets, such as Nigeria and China, in others it will purchase local companies if suitable candidates can be found. The company pursued such a strategy in Poland, which it entered in 1994, by purchasing Goplana, the country’s second largest chocolate manufacturer. With the collapse of communism and the opening of the Polish market, income levels in Poland have started to rise and so has chocolate consumption. Once a scarce item, the market grew by 8 percent a year, throughout the 1990s. To take advantage of this opportunity, Nestle has pursued a strategy of evolution, rather than revolution. It has kept the top management of the company staffed with locals – as it does in most of its operations around the world – and carefully adjusted Goplana’s product line to better match local opportunities. At the same time, it has pumped money into Goplana’s marketing, which has enabled the unit to gain share from several other chocolate makers in the country. Still, competition in the market is intense. Eight companies, including several foreign-owned enterprises, such as the market leader, Wedel, which is owned by PepsiCo, are vying for market share, and this has depressed prices and profit margins, despite the healthy volume growth. Discussions: 1. Does it make sense for Nestle to focus its growth efforts on emerging markets? Why? 2. What is the company’s strategy with regard to business development in emerging markets? Does this strategy make sense? From an organizational perspective, what is required for this strategy to work effectively? 3. Through your own research on NESTLE, identify appropriate performance indicators. Once you have gathered relevant data on these, undertake a performance analysis of the company over the last five years. What does the analysis tell you about the success or otherwise of the strategy adopted by the company? 4. How would you describe Nestle’s strategic posture at the corporate level; is it pursuing a global strategy, a multidomestic strategy an international strategy or a transnational strategy? 5. Does this overall strategic posture make sense given the markets and countries that Nestle participates in? Why? 6. Is Nestle’s management structure and philosophy aligned with its overall strategic posture? How to cite Case Nestle, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Does Dream Interpretation Really Work Essay Example For Students

Does Dream Interpretation Really Work? Essay Dreaming is one of our most intimate experiences. Every dream, every night, is very unique. Our dream world, however confusing, frightening, or even sexy, reveals all of our secrets. Every human emotion and experience can be reflected in our dreams. They mirror our deepest desires, hopes, fears, and fantasies. Our hidden self, the one we try to keep from the outside world, emerges from our subconscious. We see ourselves in the raw, sometimes quite literally. Its this complete exposure that makes our dreams so important (Grant 1).A dream is defined as a thought or imaginary transaction that occupies the mind during sleep, but many people never know what their dreams actually mean, or do they?Dreams have always fascinated man. Our ancestors believed that dreams were messages from the gods, and interpreters of dreams were visited much as doctors are today. Times may have changed, but the fascination of dreams still remains. Many famous people have put forward theories of dream interpretation (Grant 1). Interpreting dreams can help us understand ourselves and help us solve problems. A dream can warn potential danger. Things that trouble us frequently crystallize in a dream. Some dreams even predict the future. But can anyone ever tell what he or she dreams about and why?Dream interpretation plays a big part in the dream world. Many philosophers have different ways of interpreting dreams, but do these methods actually work? Its up to you and your subconscious, to determine whether or not you choose to believe it. Sigmund Freud believes that dreams were vital keys to unlock the mysteries of an individuals personality, motivations, and the overall psyche ( Many people have followed Freuds theory for many years, while others choose to believe in theories of their own. Freuds theory of dreams included many thoughts and ideas on how to understand and interpret your dreams. He states:Dreams do have meaning and are not just random events. They all have causes, Which generally come from emotionally charged life events. The themes and issues that are experienced in dreams are so emotionally charged and threatening to theego that the individual cannot deal with them directly. The dream is a faade whichdisguises anxiety or guilt, provoking thoughts and feelings. In order to understand the dream, the individual must attempt to look past the faade and discover the realissue in the dream, but psychoanalytical techniques can also be used to interpret dreams ( On the other hand, some researchers say that there is much more involved in interpreting dreams. While Freud has his own theory, many famous people such as Grant and Zolar, have written dream dictionaries, which may help interpret your dreams better. Although they may be fun and helpful, do they really work? One articles states that you need a technique rather than a dictionary and an outlook rather than an answer, when you deal with your dreams. Your dreams may be a guide if you see your life as a growth process. It will point out something that you may have disregarded in your rush of thing. Dreams may also point out a disagreement or choice you to need to make. It may even tell you that that one thing is very important for you to do and think about (www.lyricalworks. com). One example of this theory comes from The Illustrated Dream Dictionary. If you look up the word love in this dictionary it will tell you that if you dream of falling in love, someone loves you and will tell you very soon. If love passes you by, it is in fact a sign that you will soon be married (Grant 35). .u1193730632f648736e28d6998c129e78 , .u1193730632f648736e28d6998c129e78 .postImageUrl , .u1193730632f648736e28d6998c129e78 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u1193730632f648736e28d6998c129e78 , .u1193730632f648736e28d6998c129e78:hover , .u1193730632f648736e28d6998c129e78:visited , .u1193730632f648736e28d6998c129e78:active { border:0!important; } .u1193730632f648736e28d6998c129e78 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u1193730632f648736e28d6998c129e78 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u1193730632f648736e28d6998c129e78:active , .u1193730632f648736e28d6998c129e78:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u1193730632f648736e28d6998c129e78 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u1193730632f648736e28d6998c129e78 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u1193730632f648736e28d6998c129e78 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u1193730632f648736e28d6998c129e78 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u1193730632f648736e28d6998c129e78:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u1193730632f648736e28d6998c129e78 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u1193730632f648736e28d6998c129e78 .u1193730632f648736e28d6998c129e78-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u1193730632f648736e28d6998c129e78:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Gun Control Comparison Essay According to the book 20,000 Dreams Interpreted, love means many more things. If you dream of being in love, you will live a happy life. If you dream of being loved, prosperity is ahead. The question, which one are people supposed to believe (Zolar 203)? While most dream researchers think it is worthwhile to remember your dreams, there has been evidence that states something else. Some think that dreams are not important and are not worth remembering. It says that unless you find your dreams fascinating, fun, or imaginatively stimulating, dont be afraid to forget about them. If they bother you or leave you perplexed, then why mess with them. Can anyone really forget about his or her dreams? Although Freud may think that no one can forget about dreams, there are methods that can help you in dream recall. Michael and Elizabeth Thiessen state in their article Dream Central, that when you sleep, your mind tends to drift off in many different directions. The visions in your head may lead to dreaming, but you first must go about a good sleeping manner, which is helpful in dream recall. What you do before you go to sleep can make a big difference in what you can recall (Hartmann 142). An important factor to achieve a good nights sleep is relaxation. A comfortable bed and soothing music can help you sleep better. Once you are comfortable, pay attention to the main issues on your mind. This will give you an idea as to what your dream may be. Keeping your mind on one particular issue will help you recall your dreams more clearly. Sometimes it may be hard for a person to remember their dreams. It has been found that people who sleep less than six hours are much less likely to recall their dreams (Hartmann 142). The more sleep you get, the more dreams you will be able to recall.

Sunday, March 29, 2020

Understanding the Three Mile Island Nuclear Meltdown through the Perspective of Human

The 21st century will not only be defined by technology but also by the existence of complex organisations that leverage advances in the field of information technology, computers, and advanced management techniques. This is the reason why a corporation can have a main office in London but can do business all over the globe 24 hours a day and seven days a week.Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on Understanding the Three Mile Island Nuclear Meltdown through the Perspective of Human specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Aside from that the needs of a growing population such as urban centres that can hold tens of millions of people also necessitate the creation and maintenance of complex and gigantic structures such as those that deliver water, electricity and gas. The intricate systems that these structures contain multiply the probability of errors. Although there is a system of checks in place these types of faciliti es cannot afford malfunction or human errors. One good example is the nuclear facility in Three-Mile-Island that experienced a meltdown. The cause of the malfunction is linked to what managers now call as â€Å"human factors† and a clear understanding of what it means can help prevent future problems of this magnitude and potential consequence. Human Factor Before going any further it is imperative to get a clear understanding of the impact of human factors on the organisation, technology, and work and safety aspects of a nuclear plant. An excellent backdrop for this study is the definition for this concept as seen below: Human factors is a multidisciplinary field that draws on the methods, data, and principles of the behavioural and social sciences, engineering, physiology, anthropometry, biomechanics, and other disciplines to design systems that are compatible with the capabilities and limitations of the people who will use them. Its goal has been to design system that use human capabilities in appropriate ways, that protect systems from human frailties, and that protect humans from hazards associated with operation of the system (Moray Huey, 1988). This definition was the by-product of assiduous work in the field of nuclear regulatory research. This is research initiative, prompted no doubt by mishaps and other problems encountered by those working under the U.S. nuclear program. The compact definition has to be unpacked in order to appreciate the multidisciplinary aspect of human factors research.Advertising Looking for assessment on other technology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Firstly, all of the supporters of human factors research are in agreement that it simply impractical and unwise to focus on one or few fields when it comes to designing a safe and efficient system, especially when it comes to critical operations such as those that can be found in aviation or nuclear facilities. Se condly, it is not enough to simply increase the scope of study. There is a good reason why they included not only the integration of social and behavioural sciences; they also found the link between these fields and those of engineering, physiology, anthropometry, and biomechanics. Human factors research looks at the people behind the organisation as well as the technology required to accomplish what seems to be a humanly impossible task such as the monitoring and maintenance of critical systems. And finally, the definition suggests that no matter how technology has advanced there will always be a need for human expertise, the human touch is required to keep an operation to run smoothly. But this has another side to it. Due to the participation of humans in the creation, implementation and upkeep of a complex systems such as a nuclear power plant then that particular system is prone to error. Therefore, the purpose of human factors research is to design systems that are well-suited to the capabilities and limitation of the staff and operators handling and maintaining that system (Moray Huey, 1988). This is expounded even further by the realisation that human talents, perception, expectation must be considered into the design or training strategies to prepare those who will use the system. Another major purpose of human factors research is to develop a system that is protected from human frailties (Moray Huey, 1988). It is an acknowledgment that although humans can sometimes outperform machines, for example machines only do what they are programmed to do but can never make adjustments to changing conditions – but at the same time there are limitations to what the human body can do. Machines are not prone to fatigue but humans have limits that can be measured and factored into the design of the system.Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on Understanding the Three Mile Island Nuclear Meltdown through the Perspective of Human specifi cally for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Finally, human factors research is not only limited to manufacturing high-quality products and services but it is also about protecting humans from the inherent hazards of a particular system (Moray Huey, 1988). In the case of Three-Mile-Island the potential hazard is the radioactive material within the two nuclear reactors. If radioactive radiation leaks into the atmosphere the first group of individuals who will suffer from contact with radioactive materials are going to be the staff and operators and then if there is a nuclear meltdown then the whole community near the nuclear plant and so their safety must also be included in the overall design. Three-Mile-Island: Review of Facility In September 1978 the people of Pennsylvania took notice of a dedication ceremony for the newly completed nuclear power plant built in an island accessible through the Susquehanna River and it was called after the name of its location and known hereafter as the Three-Mile-Island Nuclear Power Plant (Derkins, 2003). It is located a mere 15 kilometres away from Harrisburg, the capital of Pennsylvania (Derkins, 2003). Americans are used to such announcements and it can be argued that no one had a premonition of what would follow; before the tragic event that would occur months later, a nuclear power plant is deemed safe and efficient. There was usually no drama involved. But this one is different. The said nuclear power plant is comprised of two units, two reactors and designated as follows: TMI-I was constructed at the northern end of the island in 1968 while TMI-2 was constructed just south of the first unit and it was started in 1969 (Derkins, 2003) The first unit, TMI-1, was completed in 1974 and immediately began to generate electricity but for the second unit, TMI-2 encountered construction delays and did not start generating electricity until 1978 (Derkins, 2003). It should have been a warning for t he operators but this was not uncovered because of the absence of an effective HRA tool. The Control Room and Plant Equipment Design The control room was designed in such a way that it will alert the operators if there were problems but in 1979 a complex system like this one can only do so much. So in the midst of an impending crisis a loud horn was heard by the operators and the control panels began to light up like a Christmas tree.Advertising Looking for assessment on other technology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More But there was no way to differentiate what was trivial and what was critical, the flashing lights added to the confusion but never guided the operators to the real cause of the problem. If only they knew that a critical component a relief valve has malfunctioned. This valve controls the pressure of the reactor coolant and by staying open it reduces the amount of reactor coolant in the system. However, the only way for the operators to know this is to walk behind a seven-foot high instrument panel to discover that the coolant was dangerously low but it was not convenient and practical to keep on walking back and forth from the centre of the control room to the back of the control panel and so it was easy to miss it (Walker, 2004) The operators relied on a less reliable system. They installed a signal light in the control panel and when it is lighted then it means that the relief valve was open and if it was not lighted then they assume that the relief valve was closed (Walker, 2004). The operators were unaware of the failure of the relief valve and so they made the assumption that the pressure in the reactor was still high and therefore there was enough coolant within TMI-2 (U.S. NRC, 2010). This is the reason why the reactor generated tremendous amounts of heat that at the end melted the core. Aside from the human factor and the complex operation requirement needed to run the nuclear plant, another major factor that has to be considered in order to understand why the Three-Mile-Island debacle occurred is the use of a technology called â€Å"pressurized water reactors† also known as â€Å"PWR† (Walker, 2004) This type of technology was most common in all the reactors built before the 1980s (Walker, 2004). But for Babcock and Wilcox the reactor manufacturer commissioned to build TMI-1 and TMI-2 there is no other way to build a reactor other than the use of PWR (Walker, 2004). This is significant because there is a critical part of the design which is called the Pilot-Operated-Relief-Valve (â€Å"PORV†) and it can be found on top of a forty-foot high container called a pressurizer but when it malfunctioned there was nothing that was installed to alert the operators that it has stayed open or stayed close (Walker, 2004). In other words it was the weak link in the design. This is how the PORV was supposed to work: if the pressure in TMI-2 rises rapidly so the pressurizer is overwhelmed by the sudden build-up and so it was designed to open to release cooling water and therefore reduce the pressure build-up (Walker, 2004). At first this is what happened when other parts of the system malfunctioned at about 4:00 AM, March 28, 1979 (Walker,2004). However, ten seconds later when the pressure and heat levels were back to normal the PORV was supposed to close as designed but in this case it did not close and coolant was oozing out of the reactor (Walker, 2004). The problem with this scenario is that this was not the first time t hat a PORV was stuck open, especially in TMI-2 and yet no one took time and effort to fix the problem or redesign the whole system. It was revealed later that this type of problem is common in nuclear reactors designed by Babcock and Wilcox. In fact what happened in Three-Mile-Island was replicated two years earlier in a similarly designed system at a nuclear plant named Davis-Besse (Walker,2004). The only difference is that in that case an operator was aware that there was a problem with the PORV because it stayed open and so he immediately took action to close the relief valve (Walker, 2004). In the case of TMI-2 no one knew about this problem if they did then they would have automatically went to the PORV monitor and closed the relief valve when needed. Due to the error there was no adequate cooling for the reactor and as a result the nuclear fuel overheated and the core began to melt (U.S.NRC, 2010). Human Error Types and Models There are three types of errors based on psycholog ical error mechanisms and these are listed as follows: 1) error of omission; 2) error of commission; and 3) psychological error (Verma, Ajit, Karanki, ) This is a good starting point for understanding human errors because it clearly differentiates error based on what the person did while working in a nuclear facility and the third one is the error due to lapses in memory, attention failure, and perception failure (Verma, Ajit, Karanki, 2010). These explains some of the basic errors committed in the workplace, factory or even in a nuclear facility. It is also helpful in designing a fail-safe system for planners to be acquainted with the different types of actions based on work complexities (Verma, Ajit, Karanki, 2010). These are widely known as: 1) Skill based actions; 2) Rule based actions; and 3) Knowledge based actions (Verma, Ajit, Karanki, 2010). If these are linked to human errors then slips and lapses usually occurs when it comes to skill-based actions, during routine well -practiced tasks that does not require conscious effort (Strauch, 2004). In addition there are also rule-based mistakes and knowledge-based mistakes. In the case of the former, the operator or manager applied the wrong rule. In the case of the latter the operator or manager did not posses the correct knowledge and did not have the experience to deal with a novel situation presented to him or her (Strauch, 2004). The last one can explain what happened to the Three-Mile-Island accident. The Three-Mile-Island Accident is not the result of error of commission. There was no deliberate act that resulted in failure in fact the operators had no idea what was going on, they were inundated with information and system signals that they do not know what was trivial and what was critical so that they could be guided to do the next crucial step. The incident was also the result of error of omission because the operators are all competent engineers and workers who had a clear understanding of how the system works. For instance if a supervisor told them that the relief valve was stuck and needed to be closed they would immediately know that the PORV should be closed to restore the correct amount of coolant in the reactor. But they were not privy to this information. Thus, the Three-Mile-Island incident was the result of a psychological error in the sense that it was a failure in perception. The engineers and operators thought that they were dealing with loss of water, clogged condenser etc. but the truth is there was only one critical problem that they had to address and everything could be reset to normal and yet they were unaware, the limitations of their knowledge about the Wilcox and Babcock designed nuclear plant brought them to the edge of a major disaster that could have taken hundreds even thousands of lives. Human Reliability Analysis The best HRA tool that is best suited to analyse the weakness, potential problems of a nuclear power facility is what is commonly know n as the Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction because it combines task and event tree analysis and more than that it was originally designed for the nuclear industry (Attwood Crowl, 2007). The effectiveness of THERP is seen in how it thoroughly evaluates the task at hand as well as help in developing an event tree analysis that will map out for the managers and operators of a nuclear facility what will happen if this particular steps is omitted or if a particular function failed. An event tree analysis which also serves as visual aid in the mastery of complex systems will provide an overview of the nuclear facility and its various operations. This simply means that THERP will predict what will happen in the event that a particular action is committed or omitted or if a fail-safe system did not function as designed. Other HRA tools are also effective but there are some that are reactionary in the sense that it makes recommendations based on what has happened in the past. For ex ample one HRA established a formula wherein he said that for every 10 near misses there will be an accident (Hughes Ferret, 2005). This gives the impression that managers will have to look at patterns and recognise the problem. This may work in other fields but should not be recommended for use in a nuclear facility. In a nuclear power plant something wrong can happen without precedent – it is sudden and catastrophic – there would be no time to evaluate and then make recommendations. The risk is too high to be entrusted to an HRA tool that is not as thorough as THERP. Human Factor Integration The Human Factor Integration is an important step because it is the systematic process for identifying and tracking as well as resolving human factors related issues so that planners and system engineers can create a system that balances the impact of human talents and limitation and technology (Strauch, 2004). In the case of the Three-Mile-Island incident a correctly done HFI wo uld have prevented the problem. An event tree analysis as well as task analysis was completed so that even if the operators were confronted by a novel problem they would still be able to solve the problem and not overwhelmed with various signals and information that did not make sense to them. They would have designed a control room that allow them to see every instrument and every signal that needed their attention should be displayed prominently. The HFI Plan Babcock and Wilcox, the firm that was contracted to build the Three-Mile-Island nuclear power plant should have created a human reliability analysis and the tool that they should have adopted is the THERP. If this was accomplished then they would have created a task analysis and at the same time an event tree analysis. They were able to train the support group, the operators and engineers on what to do in case of major failures but there was no system in place to deal with novel problems. And the reason for that was simple; t here was not HRA that was conducted that could have predicted human error and other forms of mechanical failure. Using an event tree analysis the operators would have known what would happen every step of the way. They are not only aware of the major components of a complex system but they would have been made familiar with the sequence of events and how the failure of one component will lead to what kind of effect. The use of THERP would have exposed the weakness of the system. In the case of the Three-Mile-Island accident the weak link is the design of the PORV signal. The signal was basic, a light that was turned on signified that the valve was open and when the light is not on then it means that the valve was close. The engineers who designed the system did not consider the possibility that the signal light may fail. They also did not consider the possibility that the operators will simply assume that that the valve was closed based on the absence of light coming from the instru ment monitoring the PORV. The one who designed the system did not consider what would happen in the event of multiple malfunctions and what it would look like inside the control room. The control room was supposed to be the eyes and ears of the engineers with regards to what is happening within the nuclear reactor. Yet it was poorly designed. A good HRA tool will determine not only the effectiveness of the control panels to convey data but to transmit data in a way that could assist the operators to deal with the most critical issue and the most critical issue during that time is not the problem with the heaters or the mechanical failure of some components of TMI-2. The most critical issue is the lack of coolant inside a super-heated reactor. Conclusion The Three-Mile-Island incident could have been easily avoided if an effective HRA tool was used even before construction of the nuclear plant was given the go signal to proceed. By using an HRA tool such as the THERP the engineers an d operators would have known that a very simple valve would play a crucial role in the meltdown of the reactor. This means that the signal that is coming from this valve should have been displayed prominently in the control room. Aside from that there should have been a more sophisticated means of alerting the operators that the valve has malfunctioned. They should not be made to rely on a simple mechanism just like the light signal coming from an obscure mechanism situated behind the control panels. The THERP would have given them a heads up when it comes to unprecedented events. They would have predicted the probability of human errors and mechanical failure so that they could create system to deal with potential problems. For instance, the signal connected to the PORV should not be a simple light bulb it should be a gauge that provides an accurate reading and it must be displayed prominently in the control room. Thus, a quick glance of the controls will immediately alert the oper ators that coolant was leaking out of the reactor. References Attwood, d. D. Crowl. (2007). Human Factors Methods for Improving Performance in the  Process Industries. New Jersey: John Wiley Sons, Inc. Dekker, S. (2005). Ten Questions About Human Error: A New View of Human Factors and  System Safety. New York: Routledge. Derkins, S. (2003). The Meltdown at Three Mile Island. New York: Rosen Publishing. Hughes, P. E. Ferret. (2005). Introduction to Health and Safety Work. Oxford: Butterworth- Heinemann. Moray, N. B. Huey. (1988). Human Factors Research and Nuclear Safety. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. U.S. NRC. (2010). â€Å"Backgrounder on the Three-Mile-Island Accident.† Retrieved from Strauch, B, (2004). Investigating Human Error: Incidents, Accidents, and Complex Systems. UK: Ashgate Publishing. Verma, A. S. Ajit, D. Karanki. (2010). Reliability and Safety Engineering. London: Springer. Walker, S. (2004). Three Mile Island: A Nuclear Crisis in Historical Perspective. CA: University of California Press. This assessment on Understanding the Three Mile Island Nuclear Meltdown through the Perspective of Human was written and submitted by user Cloud 9 to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Acquaintance Rape essays

Acquaintance Rape essays Women take many routine precautions in their lives to prevent acts of violence from happening to them. Women take these precautions as a second nature because ever since we were little children our parents taught us not to do certain things and if you do your safety may be in jeopardy. However, the precautions theyre taking are against an attack by a stranger as opposed to an attack by an acquaintance. This should not be the case when we know that large proportions of these violent and sexually violent crimes are committed by someone the woman knows and sometimes even trusts. All women know not to go out alone or walk alone, especially at night. We also know better than to interact with men if we dont want to pursue it. We are taught to dress differently so as not to attract a man. We are taught to have a ride, and let someone know where youre going and what time you plan on arriving home. These routine precautions are a good idea, but they arent addressing the real problem. The real problem is acquaintance rape, even though most people when they visualize rape, they visualize a stranger in a dark alley waiting to pounce. This is obviously not the case. If we look at the risk factors associated with acquaintance rape then we can assess some routine precautions that can be taken to avoid acquaintance rape. The first is frequently drinking enough to get drunk. Obviously men will find you more vulnerable to give into their demands if you have been drinking or are drunk. A simple way to avoid this is not drinking in excess. This directly follows the next risk factor, which is drinking to the point of being unable to resist forceful sexual advances. This is an obvious risk factor. You are certainly more likely to be raped when you cant resist because to a man that means you want it. Using drugs or drinking by either the victim or the assailant increases the risk. Therefore, don...

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Economics Final Project Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Economics Final Project - Assignment Example These needs notwithstanding, health insurance coverage has not reached levels most expected by stakeholders. A number of reasons could account for this. As a way of addressing the situation, a number of health insurance policies exist to ensure that people can have options that best apply to their needs so that they would select these. One of the options is the high-deductible health plan (HDHP). The best way to argue on whether or not HDHP will lead to improved coverage is to look at the modalities involved in this type of health insurance plan. There are two broad modalities that can be identified in this context. In the first place, users selecting this option are required to pay much lower premiums than what may be called traditional health insurance plans (Yoo and Chen, 2009). The premium refers to that money that is paid upfront to the health insurance company on a monthly basis. This means that people opting for this would not be paying so much every month as compared to those selecting other traditional plans. On the other hand, these people are required to pay higher deductibles than in traditional health insurance plans (Henderson, 2012). These deductibles are the amounts that are paid for an insurer’s own medical care before the health insurance company come in to pay anything for the insurer. From the explanation given about the rationale based on which the HDHP works, it would be noted that people who visit the doctor less often and do not accrue much cost from their visits with the doctor would have the benefit of this plan. Meanwhile, Chang et al. (2006) argued that the healthcare population of the country is made up of more of such people than those with catastrophic health conditions. Should the greater percentage get the right counsel therefore, chances that a good number of the populace would opt for HDHP and thus increase the coverage with the system is high. With this said, it is also important to look at the issue of economic benefits